General data

  • Name:  Republic of Cuba
  • Capital city:  Havana
  • Official language:  Spanish
  • Population (2014):  11.2 million inhabitants. Havana has 2.1 million inhabitants
  • Ethnic composition:  64.1% whites, 26.6% mestizos (mixed), 9.3% blacks
  • Area:  109 884 km2
  • Length:  1 256 km
  • Currency:  Cuban Peso (MN) and Convertible Cuban Peso (CUC)
  • Climate:  Subtropical. Average temperature: 25°C (77°F). Average relative humidity: 81%
  • Flag:  It was hoisted for the first time in 1850 in Cardenas City
  • National anthem:  La Bayamesa. The patriot Perucho Figueredo composed the music and wrote the lyrics in 1867/68
  • National flower:  The butterfly jasmine
  • National bird:  The tocororo (Priotelus temnurus)
  • National tree: The royal palm

Cuban symbols

Cuba's Flag
La Bayamesa, Cuba's National Anthem
Cuba's Coat of Arms
The Butterfly Jasmine, Cuba's National Flower
The Tocororo, Cuba's National Bird
The Royal Palm, Cuba's National Tree

Cuba public holidays

  • January 1st, Liberation Day
  • Holy Friday, at Easter
  • May 1st, Labour Day
  • July 26th, National Rebelliousness Day, together with July 25th & 27th
  • October 10th, Anniversary of the beginning of the 10 Years War in 1868
  • December 25th, Christmas Day
  • December 31st, New Year's Eve

Cuban history

Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba on October 27th, 1492. The conquest and colonization periods led to the extermination of the aboriginal inhabitants and then the Spanish colonists imported black people from Africa and enslaved them. The resulting mixture defined Cuba’s population and culture.

For four centuries Cuba was the main gateway to the vast Spain’s American empire, and cities such as Havana, Matanzas, Trinidad, Sancti Spiritus, Camagüey, Bayamo, Baracoa and Santiago de Cuba stand as sentinels to the bygone colonial glory. The Spanish constructed protective fortresses of solid stone to keep pirates and their European enemies out, and these outposts still guard Old Havana, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, whose charm is truly captivating.

On October 10th, 1868, began the Cuban struggle for its independence from Spain, a colonial rule which lasted for four centuries. The United States intervened at the end of the Independent War and established a pseudo republic in 1902. On January 1st, 1959 the Revolution commanded by Fidel Castro triumphed and brought essential transformations in the life of the country.